Originally called the Florida Asylum for the Indigent Insane, but more commonly called “Chattahoochee” by long-time Floridians, I came to know of the hospital’s existence back in the 1960s when I first moved to Florida. Its reputation at that time was . . . well. . . pretty bad, but in reality not so different than most asylums around the country.  But what Chattahoochee had that most other asylums didn’t was its amazing history.

From a federal arsenal during the Second Seminole and Civil Wars, to Freedman’s Bureau, to Florida’s first state penitentiary (there are stories here that will curl your hair), and finally to the asylum, the Florida State Hospital has a remarkable past–some that produced scenes one could only find in a horror movie. And, when you move into the 1900s, the story really gets interesting with political scandals, patient abuse, use of treatments such as ECT and lobotomies, and the incarceration of thousands of men, women and children who weren’t really insane at all.

“Colored” ward at the Florida State Hospital

     Out of Mind, Out of Sight will reveal for the first time, the entire history of the facility set against the backdrop of the evolution of the country’s mental health care system, from institutional care to community-based treatment centers. And, it will bring you up to date with those who currently occupy the facility–forensic patients, those who have been convicted of a crime but who are considered mentally ill and not competent to stand trial.

I’d love to hear from anyone with connections to the facility.


About Sally J. Ling

Fascinating but little known history is all around us. I write historical fiction and nonfiction about remarkable events in Florida's history. Please join me for a fascinating ride.
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63 Responses to Chattahoochee

  1. Irene says:

    Hi, I’m an amateur geneologist and just found out I had a great aunt who was in Chattahoochee from around 1920 until she died there in 1982. I had no idea she was there all those years. I’m interested in finding her grave there.

    • Hi Irene,
      Many of the graves from earlier times were unmarked, or were marked with a simple wood plaque with a number, not a name. Over time, these rotted and unless the family installed a gravestone it would be difficult to identify the grave. Also, record keeping was very poor. It wasn’t until 1932 that genealogists tried to identify the graves. You might try the following website – Find a Grave: Florida State Hospital at Hope your search is successful. Sally

  2. Mary Neely says:

    Sally, my Grandmother, Ruth Saxon, was sent there in 1919 by her Husband. He was Tax Asser in Brooksville and wanted to rid himself of her to be with his secretary. My Mother and her siblings grew up without a Mother because of this. She supposedly died there in 1948 in a fire. No one even has a picture of her. Can you help me find out something about my Grandmotherr? Thank you. You can reach me at

    • Hi Mary,
      The story of your grand mother is very sad; unfortunately, there were many stories like hers throughout the country. Many of the records of those who were admitted in the early years burned in a fire, so I don’t know if information on her survived. There are a couple of ways to find what information is still available. Try the census reports from 1920 and later; should have these. You should find her name listed, even if she was at the FSH at that time. You may also want to contact the bureau of vital statistics (Tallahassee, Florida) to obtain her death certificate. It will list the cause, date and location of her death. may have a listing of her gravesite at the FSH cemetery. All other existing records of the FSH are housed in the Florida State Archives in Tallahassee. I found some (very few) case histories there from the early 1900s, but you’d have to look through piles of records and documents to see if any information is available. Hope that helps. Sally

  3. My wife has discovered that her great aunt was committed to Chattahoochee the early 1940s. She appeared in the 1945 census and died there in 1962. We would be able to travel to the area. Is it possible to see the graveyard and/or any records if you visit in person?

  4. Sandra Moore says:

    I was born in the Chattahoochee Mental Hospital on 6/19/1958. I was adopted at the age of 2 1/2 through the Florida Orphans Society in Jacksonville, FL through the Lakeland, Florida agency. I always wondered if my egg donor was mentally ill or just an unmarried female. Did she suffer any mental illness that I might inherit. I would love to see a picture of her, to see if she looks anything like me. My daughter looks kind of like me in the face, but I don’t know where she got her shape from. I tried to find her once, in 1985 but she didn’t want anything to do with me. That’s O.K., that is her right, but I would like to see pictures of her, her brothers, her mother and father, etc. Is there anywhere I could go to find out this kind of information?

    • I’m a bit confused by your writing, is it your biological mother you’re trying to find? If so, you can receive birth certificates from the Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics. It should have the name of the mother on it and, perhaps, the father. I would start there. DCF oversees Chattahoochee, so I’d contact them to see if you can find additional information regarding the mother–patient or employee? Also, I’d go back to the agency and see what kind of records they are willing to share. If you can find the name, there are other sources, such as, where you can look up information. Hopefully one of these suggestions can successfully lead you where you want to go.

    • Dawn C says:

      Hi Sandra,
      My mother was also born at this hospital in 1960 and was adopted out of the same agency as you. I am also looking for her birth family.

    • Darrell Harris says:

      Sandra my Mother “Norma Stevens” was admitted to Chatahoochee Hospital by her Mother , Inez Ray Stevens , between 1956-1960 She was a young teenager and pregnant at this time. She gave birth there also. She gave the baby up for adoption I have been searching for my sister or brother .

      • You should be able to find the information through the Bureau of Vital Statistics for the state of Florida. Look for the birth record. There are no hospital records that would contain this information, they are kept in Tallahassee. I hope you are successful in obtaining the information you seek.

  5. Samantha says:

    I just recently found out my great-grandmother Frances Marie Walden Gillman was here from the 1940s until her death in 1954, for what we know today is post-partum depression. I am so interested in finding out everything I can about the history of this place, and what it was like for her in there. I’m truly terrified about what I may find! Do you know if medical records will give me her records, and if there is a fee for them?

    • Contact DCF for the records. Some of them were lost in a fire so I don’t know what they still have. The forties and fifties were a time of great transition with the introduction of thorazine that helped many patients. Hopefully your great-grandmother was one of them. You can also contact the bureau of vital statistics for her death certificate. When you request the certificate, let them know you want the record with her cause of death. That should be helpful to understand what happened to her. Hope this helps.

  6. K. Hill says:

    Just found a great (X3) grandfather of my husband in the 1900 census at this hospital. He died in 1906 and is buried there. I would love to see any documentation available.

    Thank you for researching an important part of the past.

    • My book, Out of Mind, Out of Sight, is a great look at the history of this institution. For further information on specific individuals, you’d need to contact DCF in Tallahassee. You can also contact to see if they have further information on his burial. The Bureau of Vital Statistics might be able to supply you with a death certificate, although these were not organized by the State into one department until around the mid-1910s. Hope that helps.

  7. Dianna Rogers says:

    Have known for some time that my GGgrandfather was committed here, died within a few days and is buried here. I recently acquired his input records from FSH, but no medical records. I learned from the input papers, just 4 pages long, from where and when he was picked up by the Deputy Sheriff and taken to Chattahoochee. Went to that county to try to see the court records from that date, either lunacy records or court records, but their records are in disarray because the courthouse is being rebuilt. Would love to know WHY he was committed and died so quickly. He was admitted 1902, 21 Jan and died 25 Jan.

    • Hi Dianna,
      I would suggest you contact the Bureau of Vital Statistics to see if they have a record of his death. While the State didn’t require notification to the capital until 1917 of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., they may have something there. Otherwise, your best bet is the county courthouse where he was committed. I’d also try Gadsden County ME’s office or courthouse to see if they have any records there of his death. If he died at the hospital, he died in Gadsden County so there should be something there. You also might try DCF in Tallahassee or the State Archives in Tallahassee. A lot of the hospital records are there, but they are not catalogued and the fact that your greatgrandfather died in the early 1900s leads be to believe that perhaps his records went up in smoke like many others in the fire. Perhaps this info can help you. Wish I could do more. Sally

  8. sandysea says:

    My mother was in Chattahoochee when I was sux months old and sent again when I was a few years old. She was placed in the black wing because of being part native American she had dark skin. I was taken as a child to visit my dear mother once a year until her release in the late 1960’s. We would picnic on the grounds and even visited a local burger place Chattahoochee chattaburgers. It’s so painful thinking about my mother and her suffering indignities and sick treatments. Inhumane is all I can say. I can’t read your boo as much as I would like to but the pain my mother suffered traumatized me.

    • Thank you for sharing. I’m sorry your mother’s mental illness was such a painful experience. Back then, Chatahoochee was the only answer for those with mental illness. The institution helped many, but not all, and used treatments they thought were state-of-the-art and beneficial. Thankfully, treatment has come a long way, but it still has a long way to go.

  9. Jaclyn LePire says:

    I was institutionalized at Chattahoochee from May/June 1982 – I’m not sure when, later in the summer or early fall of ’82. I escaped and after 30 days, when they couldn’t locate me, they released me from the State’s care.

    I got 2 big, black, female guards transferred from the female ward I was on over to one of the men’s ward for abusing me. I was/am 4’11”, 110 lbs and turned 20 years old in there.

    They had guards/orderlies and 1 nurse on staff. We slept in 1 room with like 30 beds in it. Like an army barracks.

    At meal time, each ward went in turn, the mess hall was in a different building and we lined up like prisoners and went to chow. We were allowed, like an hour after lunch, to walk the grounds.

    Thorazine was the magic cure at the time and I soon began doing the Thorazine Shuffle, just like everyone else.

    I had gone manic after the birth of my son, I was in a facility in Tampa before I was moved to Chattahoochee. I was committed under the Baker Act. When they moved me to Chattahoochee, they told my mother I would never be normal again and may have to spend my life in there.

    I’m not sure what, other than thorazine, my treatment was, but at some point I came out of my manic state. Seeing the other patients there, I knew I didn’t belong there and had to figure out how to get out. I called my mom, crying, begging her to get me out and she said she couldn’t because the state committed me.

    One day after lunch, I was wandering around and found a path, so I scoped it out for a few days to see if there were any guards that watched that area. Then one day I took the chance. I ran for miles through the woods. I don’t remember ever running into a fence. When I finally reached a road, I had no idea which way to go, where I was…all I knew is I had to get back to Tampa.

    The hospital notified my mom that I had escaped and told her, if they didn’t find me within 30 days, they would have to release me from state care. My son’s father hid me out at his mother’s for 30 days. When the state called my mom to let her know I had been released from state care, I came home.

    • Your situation was most unfortunate. Thankfully, you were able to get away. I hope you are doing well after all these years. I tried to find firsthand stories like yours for my book, but was unable to locate former patients until after I wrote the book. Then lots of folks posted their experiences. When I update the book, I will include some. Thank you for sharing your story.

      • dee says:

        My late GGGrandfather was institutionalized there from 21 Jan 1902 until his death 25 Jan. Just 4 days. He is buried in the Hospital Cemetery. I acquired a copy of his admission record but Florida Archives can find none of his medical records. The admission copy documents that he was picked up by a deputy sheriff and taken to the hospital because of a court order. I have yet to find a copy of that court order and the case that caused it to be issued.

      • I know how frustrating all this can be. Old documents many times were disposed of, or in the case of the FSH, were burned in an unintentional fire. I’m sure you’ve done this, but if not, look for the court order in the courthouse of the county where the order came from. Lots of these old records no longer exist, but it’s worth a try. Medical records are also hard to come by as the hospital gave all their old documents to the Florida State Archives but they are limited. Sorry I couldn’t help you more.

      • Dianna Rogers says:

        I did just that. Unfortunately, the documents are in storage while a new courthouse is being built! Since it is in older records, the huge ledgers are stacked 4 feet high in some places. Was not exactly sure which one to look in, but did look for the name of the judge that signed the pickup order. Mental competency records over 100 years old should be available, but not sure about that. Will have to go back when hopefully the record books will be reorganized.

  10. Kim says:

    My Great Grandfather was admitted to FSH in 1896, he was there for a little over 37 years when he died there in July 1933. I cannot find him on “find a grave” in the cemetery listing they have for FSH. I did stumble across a few pages of his records (only a few pages for 37 years?) on a genealogy website that I have been building a tree on, but the pages didn’t contain any information except about the last year or so that he was there. The pages were user submitted, not from a data base on the site. I am going to the county courthouse in the county he lived in at that time tomorrow to try and find any information on why he was sent there. I would love to find his grave, the few pages that I found just said he passed there and said he had no relatives to contact. So I am guessing he was just buried as a unknown. Any information or suggestions you could give me would be greatly appreciated. I tried searching the Florida state archives, but for the life of me I cant figure out their search process.

    • Kim, I don’t know what else to suggest. Many of the older hospital records (mostly those from early patients) were burned in a fire, what was left was sent to the Florida State Archives. If you can’t find anything there, it’s quite possible the records don’t exist anymore. Regarding the graves, early ones were marked with wooden signs that rotted over time. If the geneological folks don’t have a record of his grave, it’s likely lost to time. Sally

  11. David says:

    I’ve recently found that both my Gr-Grandmother and Gr-Grandfather were committed to FSH; Euretta Vedder in 1915, and Charles Vedder in 1920. Charles died presumably on site a couple months later, and is buried at Cemetery 3. Euretta died in 1954, but no record of her burial. Florida Archives shows their commitment dates. Is there a method to get copies of the records electronically, or would I need to visit in person? Also, are there methods to get copies of any medical records from FSH or other sources? They lived in Jacksonville prior to being committed. Any help is greatly appreciated!

    • Try the court records of the county in which they were committed. There might be commitment papers on file and the reason for the commitment. Contact them directly first to see whether they still have records that go back that far. You can also try the Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics for death certificates and cause of death. Other than that, the hospital doesn’t have medical records that go back that far. Only the State Archives have any records that were turned over to them as a fire wiped out many of the old records. That’s about all I can suggest unless you’ve tried Find a Grave and look for any info on their graves. Sorry I couldn’t be of more help.

      • David says:

        Thanks Sally. I’ll keep digging. I actually created the find-a-grave memorial page for Charles after I found he was buried there. I’m awaiting a volunteer to attempt to find it & take a picture. Not getting my hopes up, as Cem 3 is in an un-maintained area, and the forest has retaken the area. On that note – if you’re unaware, there was an investigation / proposal in 2011 to recover & provide maintenance for the cemeteries used by FSH. It’s very interesting. If you’d like to see it, Google search “Preservation Assessment of Cemeteries at The Florida State Hospital”. I don’t know if the proposal has been approved / put into action.

      • I hope you’ve read my book. If so, you’ll find that during the time of your Gr-grandparent’s commitments, people could be sent to FSH for all sorts of things–sunbathing in the nude, menopause, smoking, etc. All they needed was someone to sign the papers. It’s most curious that both your Gr-grandparents were committed at the same time. Haven’t seen that before.

      • David says:

        Yes, I look forward to reading it (ordering from Amazon). I also just looked at the superintendent’s reports for the this timeframe. It seems Duval county (Jacksonville) consistently provided the largest number of admissions, followed by Hillsborough county (Tampa).

  12. Carolyn Tasker says:

    My great great grandfather,William Franklin Carroll, born 1869 in Lynn, Alabama, spent 2 yrs. 7 mos.10 days in the Florida State Hospital. He passed away May 7th 1942. I know this ,because of Death Certificate from Florida.
    My question is; Why was he there? Where was he removed to.The certificate stated he was removed. The death certificate states his Father was David Carroll and his wife was Verendo. All the info I have on them is that they had no children. On 1930 US census (which I know is correct)
    my gggrandfather is listed as John C. Carroll living with his son Walter D. Carroll. This is factual. I am wondering, who his real parents are and where is he busied?
    Thank you in advance for all of your help. Carolyn

  13. Kayla Kilgore says:

    My name is Kayla Kilgore. My great grandmother was a patient here. She died in 1948 I believe. Is there any way possible to get any records on her stent at chattahoochie? Any help would be so greatly appreciated. Thank you.

  14. Martha Taylor says:

    Just heard this story from 91 year old father in law. His grandmother was Sallie Delcter Weaver. We believe she was born in NC in 1867. She married William Kirkland Rhodes and they had 3 girls in early 1900. Lived in Vicksburg, MS during a portion of their marriage. By all accounts William was awful and “dove Sallie crazy.” He told the girls she was in a mental hospital in Milton, FL. They were told the hospital called him in Feb 1928 to say she’d died and to collect the body. He left and cane back – alone. He never would tell the girls where their mother was buried? I haven’t found anything about a hospital in Milton, any hospital records, etc. is this a family story or as I suspect, there is s kernel of truth in there somewhere. Where can I look for records?

    • Don’t know of a mental hospital in Milton, Fl. The only one in Florida was in Chattahoochee during the year you indicated. The second Florida mental hospital wasn’t opened until 1947 and that was in Arcadia, so not sure this story is accurate.

  15. Renea harrigill says:

    Was the one on Stewart street in Milton open then? I don’t know the name of it…

  16. Barbara Lash says:

    Hello Sally: I have been working in the Mental Health field for over 25 years. I work in the University setting, educating student Psychiatrists, Counselors and Psychiatric Nurses. Is there anyway to take a group of students and tour the facility? I also just came across your book and I am looking forward to reading it.

    • Hi Barbara: As far as I know, they don’t give tours. When I was writing the book, I even had difficulty touring the facility, but you may have better luck since you have psychiatric students who are in training. By the way, in what university do you teach? If you ever need a guest speaker to talk about Chattahoochee, please let me know.

  17. Michelle Locke says:

    Hello, My family is from Crestview. My Grandmother’s sister was committed to Chattahoochee after killing her husband. I think it was the late 50’s or early to mid 60’s.

    I don’t know much more than that, other than she did get out because my Grandma used to take my Mom and me to have lunch with her. I was 3 or 4 so sometime around 1969 or 1970.

    • Hi Michelle. Around the time your grandmother’s sister got out was when things changed drastically in Florida regarding treatment of those with mental health issues. It was the start of community-based treatment and the release of thousands of Chattahoochee patients.

      • darrell Harris says:

        My Mother was admitted at Florida s Chatahoochee a Hospital around 1956-1958 by my Grandmother (Her Mom) my Mom was pregnant and gave birth I believe to a girl Can u help me find the baby girl. My Mom had to give up due to her mental condition. Her name was Norma Jeane Stevens Her mother was Inez Ray Stevens

        Sent from my iPhone


      • Darrell, please contact the Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics for a birth certificate. That’s the best place to start. After that, you may have to track down adoption agencies that were operating in the area during that time, unless it was a private adoption. The county in which the baby was adopted should have a record of it. Try the courthouse. I’m sorry I can’t help you further, but this should give you a good start on trying to locate her. Wishing you much success with your search. Sally

  18. Tracy E Paul says:

    Hello Sally, my great grandfather, Hubbie Carswell admitted to Florida’s Chattahoochee Hospital. I’m not sure of the year(s), but I believe sometime early 1970’s, maybe even the late 1960;s. He was released and came to Florida with his daughter, Christine. I am trying to research my family history and wanted to know when he left Georgia and was admitted. Thank you for any assistance you can provide or any direction you can point me.

    • Try two places: 1) the Florida State Hospital administration, or 2) Florida State Archives in Tallahassee. Many of the records were burned in a fire, so I don’t know what you’ll find, but those that are left from that time period are in the archives. It might require a personal visit or contracting someone to search their records. I don’t know if they’ve digitized all their records. Wishing you success in your endeavor.

  19. Laura Fitzmaurice says:

    Hello Sally, You mention a fire that destroyed records at the Florida State Hospital. Do you know when the fire took place? Thank you for any help you can give me!

  20. Becki Jones says:

    My G-grandfather was a patient there when he passed away in 1964. His name was Joseph Davis. How can I find any records on him? Thank you.

  21. Shaddow says:

    Would love 2 see ur mission come 2 fruition…my grandfather was the master electrician there from the 40’s ’till the late 70’s but took most of the secrets to the grave…only an uncle or 2 heard a few horror stories…even my grandfather speaking of a WRAITH from his past…a patient he failed 2 save but by that point my was afflicted with dementia…we’ll never know what he may have witnessed…keep up ur awesome work!

  22. My grandmother was in there cora Powell she had a baby girl while there that was adopted by a nurse her son my father Benjamin Grier daughter Betty Powell Burks could not get her nor Thier sister I think she is still living i would love to see her or know something about her this had to be in the 1940’s can someone please help me I have dreamed about her every Sense I was a little girl

    • Thank you for contacting me. Find a genealogist who can create a family tree or use to look up your family history. The hospital doesn’t keep patient records, and the Florida Archives only has limited info. Best wishes in your search.

    • Edwin Darrell Harris says:

      My Mother “Norma Jeane Stevens “ was at this facility back in1954-1957. Her Mother(Inez Ray Stevens) my Grandmother admitted her there while she was pregnant there. So I have either a sister or Brother somewhere who I never have known
      I wish somehow I could get some answers too

      • Thanks for your note. The best way to track down family members is through a genealogy search (try If your sibling was adopted, you would need to go through the court system. You may also try the Florida State Archives. I once found an admittance card through them. Wishing you success in your search.

  23. Sally my maternal grandmother, Beulah Marie Walker was institutionalized at Chatahoochee State Mental Hospital sometime in the late 1920’s put there by her husband, my grandfather George Henry Walker and she lived there until her death in the early 1960’s. I believe that she is buried in the State Cemetary there as I was a little girl back then and recall going with my parents to her funeral there. My mother Wanda Colleen Walker and her little brother Terrance Walker were placed in separate foster homes and my mother was adopted by a couple in Tallahasee FL, William an Mae Hendrix. She was told that her little brother was killed shortly after at the foster home by finding a gun that they had. Must have been playing with it. She never really knew. Her natural father left and she never saw or heard from him again. Because she was adopted and her name was changed from Walker to Hendrix, her original birth certificate is sealed and I cannot obtain it. I would like to see it so that I can learn what my grandmother’s maiden name was. I know that she was born in Nova Scotia, Canada and that she had a sister, Loretta whose married last name was Carpenter. She lived in Pinellas Park FL and I met her when I was quite young. They are all deceased now including my mother, who by the way was born in Avon Park FL in 1926. Would just like to find out if my grandmother is indeed buried in the FSL cemetary so that I can travel to FL to see her headstone. My brother and I are her only living decendants aside from my children and grandchildren. My brother is not married and has no lineal decendants. Any help that you can provide is certainly appreciated.

    • Try doing a genealogy search on I have a friend who does this, and with your permission, I’ll be glad to put you in touch with her. Tracing your lineage back may uncover what you seek. Let mw know.

  24. Eva Smith says:

    My mother was held in Chattahoochee and was giving electric shock…I remember the stories my sister had told me growing up. My mom always was in and out of mental hospitals all my life. I am interested in maybe finding her records of when she was there. Very sad place.

  25. Belinda dawsey says:

    My grandmother was in there and had a baby there, and died there as well, The baby were told was adopted by a nurse there at the time. I’m 64yrs old and All My life I’ve wanted to know the truth, My grandmother’s name was corra Powell , she May have been a King were staff aloud to adopt kids.


    • Sherria,
      Thanks for reaching out. You’ll need to contact the Florida State Archives in Tallahassee to see if any records exist. Many were destroyed in a fire decades ago. The hospital does not keep archived records there. Wishing you much success in your search.

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